Art may reflect the ways people lived. Researchers have discussed how art portrays clothing and social settings. One study was conducted to determine if this idea could be extended to paintings featuring family meals. The results of this study might help illustrate why certain kinds of foods were painted.
The researchers examined 140 paintings of family meals painted from the years 1500 to 2000. These came from five countries: the United States, France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. The researchers examined each painting for the presence of 91 foods, with absence coded as 0 and presence coded as 1. For example, when one or more onions appeared in a painting, the researchers coded it as 1. Then they calculated the percentage of the paintings from these countries that included each food.
Table 1 shows the percentage of paintings with selected foods. The researchers discussed several findings. First, some paintings from these countries included foods | the researchers had expected. Shellfish were most common in the Netherlands' (Dutch) paintings, which was anticipated as nearly half of its border touches the sea. Second, some paintings did not include foods | the researchers had expected. Shellfish and fish each appeared in less than 12 % of the paintings from the United Stages, France, and Italy although large portions of these countries border oceans or seas. Chicken, a common food, seldom appeared in the paintings. Third, some paintings included foods | the researchers had not expected. For example, among German paintings, 20% of them included shellfish although only 6% of the country touches the sea. Also, lemons were most common in paintings from the Netherlands, even though they do not grow there naturally.
The Frequency of Selected Foods shown in Piantings by Percentage
Compairing these results with previous research, the researchers concluded that food art does not necessarily portray actual life. The researchers offered some explanations for this. One explanation is that artists painted some foods to express their interest in the larger world. Another is that painters wanted to show their technique by painting more challenging foods. For example, the complexity of a lemon's surface and interior might explain its popularity, especially among Dutch artists. As other interpretations are possible, it is necessary to examine the paintings from different perspectives. These are the period in which the paintigns were completed and the cultural associations of foods. Both issues will be taken up in the following sections.
(Brian Wansink 他(2016) Food Art Does Not Reflect Reality: A Quantitative Contesnt Analysis of Meals in Popular Paintings の一部を参考に作成）
問１ For the category "Apples" in this research, a painting with two whole apples and one apple cut in half would be labeled as [ 33 ].
① 0 ② 1 ③ 2 ④ 3
問２ According to Table 1, the paintings from [ 34 ].
① France included apples at a lower percentage than the German ones
② France included cheese at a higher percentage than the Dutch ones
③ Italy included bread at a lower percentage than the american ones
④ Italy included onions at a higher percentage than the German ones
問３ According to the passage and Table 1, [ 35 ].
① chicken frequently appeared in the American paintings because people there often ate chicken
② fish appeared in less than one tenth of the Italian paintings though much of Italy lies next to seas
③ lemons appeared in more than half of the Dutch paintings as they are native to the Netherlands
④ shellfish appeared in half of the paintings from each of the five coutnries because they touch seas
問４ According to the passage, foods in these paintings can [ 36 ].
① demonstrate the painters' knowledge of history
② display the painters' desire to stay in their countries
③ indicate the painters' artistic skills and abilities
④ reflect the painters' love of their local foods