Spring is almost here.
共通テストの英語 第６問 A
Ice hockey is a team sport enjoyed by a wide variety of people around the world. The object of the sport is to move a hard rubber disk called a "puck" into the other team's net with a hockey stick. Two teams with six players on each team engage in this fast-paced sport on a hard and slippery ice rink. Players may reach a speed of 30 kilometers per hour sending the puck into the air. At this pace, both the players and the puck can be a cause of serious danger.
The speed of the sport and the slippery surface of the ice rink make it easy for players to fall down or bump into each other resulting in a variety of injuries. In an attempt to protect players, equipment such as helmets, gloves, and pads for the shoulders, elbows, and legs, has been introduced over the years. Despite these efforts, ice hockey has a high rate of concussions.
A concussion is an injury to the brain that affects the way it functions; it is caused by either direct or indirect impact to the head, face, neck, or elsewhere and can sometimes cause temporary loss of consciousness. In less serious cases, for a short time, players may be unable to walk straight or see clearly, or they may experience ringing in the ears. Some believe they just have a slight headache and do not realize｜they have injured their brains.
In additon to not realizing the seriousness of the injury, players tend to worry about what their coach will think. In the past, coaches preferred tough players who played in spite of the pain. In other words, while it would seem logical for an injured player to stop playing after getting hurt, many did not. Recently, however, it has been found that concussions can have serious effects that last a lifetime. People with a history of concussion may have trouble concentrating or sleeping. Moreover, they may suffer from psychological problems such as depression and mood changes. In some cases, players may develop smell and taste disorders.
The National Hockey League (NHL), consisting of teams in Canada and the United States, has been making stricter rules and guidelines to deal with concussions. For example, in 2001, the NHL introduced the wearing of visors－pieces of clear plastic attached to the helmet that protect the face. At first, it was optional and many players chose not to wear them. Since 2013, however, it has been required. In addition, in 2004, the NHL began to give more severe penalties, such as suspensions and fines, to players who hit another player in the head deliberately.
The NHL also introduced a concussion spotters system in 2015. In this system, NHL officials with access to live streaming and video replay watch for visible indications of concussion during each game. At first, two concussion spotters, who had no medical training, monitored the game in the arena. The following year, one to four concussion spotters with medical training were added. They monitored each game from the League's head office in New York. If a spotter thinks that a player has suffered a concussion, the player is removed from the game and is taken to a "quiet room" for an examination by a medical doctor. The player is not allowed to return to the game until the doctor gives permission.
The NHL has made much progress in making ice hockey a safer sport. As more is learned about the causes and effects of concussions, the NHL will surely take further measures to ensure player safety. Better safety might lead to an increase in the number of ice hockey players and fans.
共通テストの英語 第６問 B
A recent US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey concluded that 14.6% of the average American's energy intake is from "added sugar," which refers to sugar that is not derived from whole foods. A banana, for example, is a whole food, while a cookie contains added sugar. More than half of added sugar calories are from sweetened drinks and desserts. Lots of added sugar can have negative effects on our bodies, including excessive weight gain and other health problems. For this reason, many choose low-calorie substitutes for drinks, snacks, and desserts.
Natural alternatives to white sugar include brown sugar, honey, and maple syrup, but they also tend to be high in calories. Consequently, alternative "low-calorie sweeteners" (LCSs), mostly artificial chemical combinations, have become popular. The most common LCSs todya are aspartame, Ace-K, stevia, and sucralose. Not all LCSs are artificial－stevia comes from plant leaves.
Alternative sweeteners can be hard to use in cooking because some cannot be heated and most are far sweeter than white sugar. Aspartame and Ace-K are 200 times sweeter than sugar. Stevia is 300 times sweeter, and sucralose has twice the sweetness of stevia. Some new sweeteners are even more intense. A Japanese company recently developed "Advantame," which is 20,000 times sweeter than sugar. Only a tiny amount of this substance is required to sweeten something.
When choosing sweeteners, it is important to consider health issues. Making desserts with lots of white sugar, for example, results in high-calorie dishes that could lead to weight gain. There are those who prefer LCSs for this very reason. Apart from calories, however, some research links consuming artificial LCSs with various other health concerns. Some LCSs contain strong chemmicals suspected of causing cancer, while others have been shown to affect memory and brain development, so they can be dangerous, especially for young children, pregnant women, and the elderly. There are a few relatively natural alternative sweeteners, like xylitol and sorbitol, which are low in calories. Unfortunately, these move through the body extremely slowly, so consuming large amounts can cause stomach trouble.
When people want something sweet, even with all the information, it is difficult for them to decide whether to stick to common higher calorie sweeteners like sugar or to use LCSs. Many varieties of gum and candy today contain one or more artificial sweeteners; nontheless, some people who would not put artificial sweeteners in hot drinks may still buy such items. Individuals need to weigh the options and then choose the sweeteners that best suit their needs and circumstances.
America is back.
what so proudly we hailed
at the twilight's last gleaming?
Whose broad stripes and bright stars
through the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched
were so gallantly streaming?
the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night
that our flag was still there.
Oh, say does that
star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free
and the home of the brave?
I give you my word. I will always level with you. I will defend the Constitution. I'll defend our democracy. I'll defend America and I will give all, all of you. Keep everything I do in your service, thinking not of power, but of possibilities, not of personal interest, but of the public good. And together we shall write an American story of hope, not fear. Of unity, not division. Of light, not darkness. A story of decency and dignity, love and healing, greatness and goodness.
Paper Church in Kobe
On January 17, 1995, there was a great earthquake in the Hanshin area. Ban Shigeru went to Kobe and saw many of the victims of the earthquake standing together near their church. It had been badly damaged.
He asked the priest, "Why don' we build a new church using paper tubes?" At first, the priest did not agree to the offer. He said that the most important thing should be housing for the victims.
Ban visited the church many times to talk to the priest. He told the priest that the church was important because it would serve as community center for the earthquake victims.
Finally, the priest understood Ban's way of thinking. Ban and more than 300 volunteers worked together to build the church.
Ban believes that relief structures should be beautiful. Because they help restore the self-respect（自尊心） of disaster victims, his shelters have been called "dignity buildings（暮らす人々の尊厳を保つ建物）."
Bans says that just because a structure is temporary doesn't mean it shouldn't look good.（仮設だからといって見栄えが良くなくてもよいということにはならない）"Displaced people are damaged in spirit as well as in body," he explains. "They have to stay in nice places. I think it very important that they see something beautiful."